Word Treasure


Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an interdisciplinary field of computer science that involves the development of computational systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. The machine simulates cognitive functions like learning, reasoning, problem-solving, perception, and language understanding through algorithms, models, and techniques. AI methods include symbolic AI, machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and expert systems. Natural language processing enables machines to understand and generate human language, and computer vision analyzes visual data for perception and interpretation.

One emerging AI technology, ChatGPT, is a powerful language model developed by OpenAI. In higher education, ChatGPT has the potential to provide personalized support, instant answers, explanations, virtual tutoring, and automated administrative tasks. However, it also presents challenges such as limitations, biases, transparency, and the impact on human interaction and critical thinking skills.

The ethical concerns of using AI in education include bias, privacy, human interaction, and academic transparency. The legal regulation of these issues is crucial to ensure the responsible and effective use of AI in education.

Learn more:

  • Baidoo-Anu, D., & Owusu Ansah, L. (2023). Education in the era of generative artificial intelligence (AI): Understanding the potential benefits of ChatGPT in promoting teaching and learning. Available at SSRN 4337484.
  • Brecker, K., Lins, S., & Sunyaev, A. (2023, January). Why it Remains Challenging to Assess Artificial Intelligence. In 56th Hawaii Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
  • Diaz, Maria. (2023). What is AI? Everything to know about artificial intelligence. – In: ZDnet.com. Online: https://www.zdnet.com/article/what-is-ai-heres-everything-you-need-to-know-about-artificial-intelligence/
  • Duggal, Nikita. (2023). Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence. – In: Simplilearn.com. Online: https://www.simplilearn.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-artificial-intelligence-article
  • Frankenfield, Jake. (24.04.2023). Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and How It Is Used. – In: Investopedia.com. Online: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/artificial-intelligence-ai.asp
  • Gao CA, Howard FM, Markov NS, Dyer EC, Ramesh S, Luo Y, et al. Comparing scientific abstracts generated by ChatGPT to original abstracts using an artificial intelligence output detector, plagiarism detector, and blinded human reviewers. BioRxiv. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.12.23.521610v1.
  • Lampropoulos, G. (2023). Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and Machine Learning in Industry 4.0. In Encyclopedia of Data Science and Machine Learning (pp. 2101-2109). IGI Global.
  • Salvagno, M., Taccone, F. S., & Gerli, A. G. (2023). Can artificial intelligence help for scientific writing?. Critical care27(1), 1-5.
  • Schroer, Alyssa. (2023). What Is Artificial Intelligence?. – In: Builtin.com. Online: https://builtin.com/artificial-intelligence

See also:

Britannica. Artificial Intelligence

Google Cloud


The AI Act

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  


Digital Fluency

Digital fluency is assessing and selecting the right technological solutions to solve specific problems flexibly and effectively. The DF concept includes basic digital literacy skills, such as reading, writing, evaluating information, and technical competencies. Soft skills are a crucial feature of the DF competence specter. To be digitally fluent, one must be able to communicate and connect to others and exchange ideas. To assume, DF is a set of professional and personal settings that allow individuals to use technologies in a creative manner to complete a complex digital project.

Learn more:

  • Bratt, S., & Hodgins, L. (2017, October). Towards the design of a digital fluency course–An exploratory study. In E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 1017-1030). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
  • Demir, K., & Odabaşı, H. F. (2022). Development of digital fluency scale: Validity and reliability study. Themes in eLearning, 15, 1-20.
  • Dias-Trindade, S., & Ferreira, A. G. (2020). Digital teaching skills: DigCompEdu CheckIn as an evolution process from literacy to digital fluency. ICONO 14, Revista de comunicación y tecnologías emergentes, 18(2), 162-187.
  • Fleming, E. C., Robert, J., Sparrow, J., Wee, J., Dudas, P., & Slattery, M. J. (2021). A digital fluency framework to support 21st-century skills. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 53(2), 41-48.
  • Fulgence, K. (2020). Developing Digital Fluency among Teacher Educators: Evidence from Tanzanian Schools of Education. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 16(2), 158-175.
  • Miller, C., & Bartlett, J. (2012). ‘Digital fluency’: towards young people’s critical use of the internet. Journal of Information Literacy, 6(2), 35-55.
  • Niessen, S. (2013). What is digital fluency? Inquiry Paper, EC&I, 830.
  • Sparrow, J. (2018). Digital fluency: Big, bold problems. New Horizons: The technologies ahead. Educause Review. March, 12.
  • Wang, Q., Myers, M. D., & Sundaram, D. (2013). Digital natives and digital immigrants: Towards a model of digital fluency. Wirtschaftsinformatik, 55, 409-420.

See also:

Digital Fluency Guidebook

Digital Learning Collaborative

Knowledge City Learning Solutions

University of Arkansas Grantham

Ursinus College. Defining Digital Fluency


The transliteracy term was introduced by the Transliteracies Project Group. The project is headed by Alan Liu – Chair and Professor of the English Department, at UC Santa Barbara. 

The most used definition of the transliteracy concept is by the Production and Research in Transliteracy group (PART) at De Montfort University. 

The ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools, and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio, and film, to digital social networks. (Thomas, et al., 2007).

According to the PART project team, transliteracy is not a new thing – it is simply another evolutionary step to take our communication and learning skills to the next level of the new informational ecosystem. 

“transliteracy extends the act of transliteration and applies it to the increasingly wide range of communication platforms and tools at our disposal. From early signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, and film to networked digital media, the concept of transliteracy calls for a change of perspective away from the battles over print versus digital, and a move instead towards a unifying ecology not just of media, but of all literacies relevant to reading, writing, interaction, and culture, both past and present.” (Thomas et al. 2007)

Transliteracy and libraries

There are many recent education approaches derived from the transliteracy concept. A significant part of them is related to the libraries, although as Lane Wilkinson emphasizes: Transliteracy is a concept adopted from outside the library world. (Wilkinson 2013, 135)

Therefore, library specialists adopted the concept and used it as a relevant educational matrix that corresponds to the needs of their customers to cope with the new informational paradigm. Wilkinson shares an important notion:

 students can be surprisingly adept at using Google, blogs, Twitter, and other services to find information, they realize that students still are often completely lost and unable to comprehend the complexities of “library” research. Indexes, keywords, abstracts, OpenURL resolvers, and other library-centric concepts are often a barrier to classroom communication. By emphasizing the skills that transfer across or between separate information resources, transliteracy breaks down artificial distinctions between popular and scholarly, and thereby serves as an excellent foil to student apprehensions. (Wilkinson 2013, 136) 

Learn more:

  • Andretta, S. (2012). Web 2.0: from information literacy to transliteracy. Information literacy beyond Library, 53-64.
  • Anne Lehmans. NEW PERSPECTIVES IN TRANSLITERACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRENCH “PROFESSEUR-DOCUMENTALISTE”. European Meeting on Media and Information Literacy Education, 2012, Milan, Italy. ⟨hal-00983920⟩
  • Frau-Meigs, D. (2012). Transliteracy as the new research horizon for media and information literacy. Media Studies, 3(6).
  • Freire, M. M. (2020). Transmedia storytelling: from convergence to transliteracy. DELTA: Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada, 36.
  • Ipri, T. A. (2010). Introducing transliteracy: What does it mean to academic libraries?. College and Research Libraries News 532-533; 567. https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/lib_articles/106
  • Jaeger, P. (2011). Transliteracy–New Library Lingo and What It Means for Instruction. Library Media Connection, 30(2), 44-47.
  • Liquète, V. (2012, June). Can one speak of an” Information Transliteracy”?. In International Conference: Media and Information Literacy for Knowledge Societies (pp. 7-p).
  • Sukovic, S. (2016). Transliteracy in complex information environments. Chandos Publishing.
  • Thomas, S. (2008). Transliteracy and new media. Transdisciplinary Digital Art: Sound, Vision and the New Screen. Berlin. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 101-109.
  • Thomas, S., Joseph, C., Laccetti, J., Mason, B., Mills, S., Perril, S., & Pullinger, K. (2007). Transliteracy: crossing divides. First Monday.
  • Wilkinson, L. (2013). Bridging the gaps: transliteracy as effective pedagogy.

See also:

Association of College and Research Libraries

IGI Global  

Language and Humanities

Libraries and Transliteracy

Research in the Technological, Social, and Cultural Practices of Online Reading. Transliteracies Project


An innovative approach where the educator recognizes and develops the playability potential of certain stages of the learning process. According to Marjaana Kangas’s study playfulness refers to the learning actions and their qualities (e. g. Bodrova & Leong, 2003). It also refers to an attitude towards learning and a way of learning through play and games in the playful learning environment settings. (Kangas 2010)

Learn more:

  • Balkaya, S., & Akkucuk, U. (2021). Adoption and use of learning management systems in education: The role of playfulness and self-management. Sustainability, 13(3), 1127.
  • Brown, N., & Leigh, J. (2018). Creativity and playfulness in higher education research. In Theory and method in higher education research (Vol. 4, pp. 49-66). Emerald Publishing Limited.
  • Codish, D., & Ravid, G. (2015). Detecting playfulness in educational gamification through behavior patterns. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 59(6), 6-1.
  • Kangas, M. (2010). Creative and playful learning: Learning through game co-creation and games in a playful learning environment. Thinking skills and Creativity, 5(1), 1-15.
  • Kangas, M. (2010). The school of the future: Theoretical and pedagogical approaches for creative and playful learning environments. fi= Lapin yliopisto| en= University of Lapland.
  • Kangas, M., Koskinen, A., & Krokfors, L. (2017). A qualitative literature review of educational games in the classroom: the teacher’s pedagogical activities. Teachers and Teaching, 23(4), 451-470.
  • Tanis, D. J. (2012). Exploring play/playfulness and learning in the adult and higher education classroom. The Pennsylvania State University.

See also:

Leiden Learning & Innovation Centre (LLInC)

Play&Learn Digimedia

The University of Bristol Education works

Digital game-based learning

Digital game-based learning (DGBL) is increasingly being used to refer to the use of games for expected learning outcomes. The expression emphasizes the importance of the context of using digital games for educational purposes rather than the use of stand-alone applications (Felicia et al. 2011).

Learn more:

  • Anastasiadis, T., Lampropoulos, G., & Siakas, K. 2018. Digital game-based learning and serious games in education. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering4(12), 139-144.
  • All, A., Castellar, E. P. N., & Van Looy, J. 2016. Assessing the effectiveness of digital game-based learning: Best practices. Computers & Education92, 90-103.
  • Felicia, P., Egenfeld-Nielsen, S., Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S., Meyer, B., & Sørensen, B. H. 2011. Game-based learning: A review of the state of the art. Serious games in education: A global perspective, 21-46.
  • Sanchez, E. (2019, May 27). Game-Based Learning. SpringerLink. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-60013-0_39-1
  • What is digital game-based learning (DGBL). IGI Global. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2022, from https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/digital-game-based-learning-dgbl/7628

See also

Game Jam

“Jam” is a reference to musical jam sessions. Similarly, the goal of a “game jam” is to come together and make a videogame, or a non-digital (analog) game like a board game or card game(GlobalGameJam). The Game Jam Brainstorming session aimed at devising (and therefore not necessarily developing) a game. In this session, participants are then invited to reflect on a specific theme and to invent a related game( Uggeri 2020).


See also:

Game Jam Community

Global Game Jam®

Active Learning

Active learning is an approach to instruction that involves actively engaging students with the course material through discussions, problem-solving, case studies, role plays and other methods. Active learning approaches place a greater degree of responsibility on the learner than passive approaches such as lectures, but instructor guidance is still crucial in the active learning classroom. Active learning activities may range in length from a couple of minutes to whole class sessions or may take place over multiple class sessions.

What is Active Learning? Queens University. Online: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.<https://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/active/04_what_is_active_learning.html>


  • Active Learning. Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2022, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095348748.
  • Bruff, Derek.(2009). Teaching with classroom response systems: creating active learning environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Dadach, Zin Eddine.(2013). “Quantifying the Effects of an Active Learning Strategy on the Motivation of Students.” International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(4), 904-913.
  • Freeman, Scott, Eddy, Sarah L., McDonough, Miles, Smith, Michelle K., Okoroafor, Nnadozie, Jordt, Hannah., & Wenderoth, Mary Pat. (2014). “Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8319–8320. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319030111.
  • Gibson, K., & Shaw, C. (2010). Assessment of Active Learning. In The International Studies Encyclopedia. : Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2022, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191842665.001.0001/acref-9780191842665-e-0405.
  • Hadjerrouit, Said. (2005). “Designing a Pedagogical Model for Web Engineering Education: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Journal of Information Technology Education, 4, 115-140.
  • Jackson, S. (2010). Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies. In The International Studies Encyclopedia. : Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2022, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191842665.001.0001/acref-9780191842665-e-0364.
  • Lantis, J., Kille, K., & Krain, M. (2010). The State of the Active Teaching and Learning Literature. In The International Studies Encyclopedia. : Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2022, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191842665.001.0001/acref-9780191842665-e-0346.
  • Lord, Susan M., Prince, Michael J., Stefanou, Candice R., Stolk, Jonathan D., & Chen, John C. (2012). “The Effect of Different Active Learning Environments on Student Outcomes Related to Lifelong Learning.” International Journal of Engineering Education, 28(3), 606-620.
  • Michael, Joel. (2006). “Where’s the evidence that active learning works?” Advances in Physiology Education, 30(4), 159-167. doi: 10.1152/advan.00053.2006.
  • Wallace, S. (2015). active learning. In A Dictionary of Education. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2022, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199679393.001.0001/acref-9780199679393-e-19.

Role Play

Role play is a form of experiential learning. Involvement technique which can be applied within a training course where learners interpret characters to try concrete behaviors and actions in a simulated context. The method has been shown as effective in reaching learning outcomes in higher education.


STEM is an abbreviation for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (as subjects of study). The term “STEM education” refers to teaching and learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It typically includes educational activities across all grade levels— from pre-school to post-doctorate—in both formal (e.g., classrooms) and informal (e.g., afterschool programs) settings.

Learn more:

See also:

Inquiry Based Learning (IBL)

Investigation-based learning stimulates the formulation of questions and actions to solve problems and understand phenomena. The teacher typically does not tell students what they need to know but encourages them to explore a subject or theme, ask questions and share ideas.

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Big data

According to Oracle: “The definition of big data is data that contains greater variety, arriving in increasing volumes and with more velocity. This is also known as the three Vs.

Put simply, big data is larger, more complex data sets, especially from new data sources. These data sets are so voluminous that traditional data processing software just can’t manage them. But these massive volumes of data can be used to address business problems you wouldn’t have been able to tackle before”.

Learn more:

  • Big Data: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-9840-6
  • Boyd, D., & Crawford, K. (2011). Six provocations for Big Data. In: SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1926431
  • Cappa, F., Oriani, R., Peruffo, E., & McCarthy, I. (2021). Big data for creating and capturing value in the digitalized environment: Unpacking the effects of volume, variety, and veracity on firm performance. In: Journal of Product Innovation Management, 38 (1), р. 49–67. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12545
  • Dedić, N., Stanier, C. (2017). Towards Differentiating Business Intelligence, Big Data, Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery. In: Piazolo, F., Geist, V., Brehm, L., Schmidt, R. (eds). Innovations in Enterprise Information Systems Management and Engineering. ERP Future 2016. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol 285. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58801-8_10
  • Hilbert, M., & López, P. (2011). The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information. In: Science, 332(6025), p. 60–65. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1200970
  • Taniar, D., & Rahayu, J. W. (eds) (2019). Emerging perspectives in big data warehousing. IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5516-2
  • What is Big Data? Oracle. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2022, from https://www.oracle.com/big-data/what-is-big-data/

See also:

IGI Global Bookstore

Oxford Reference

Digital competences

According to EU Commission Digital Competence Framework identifies the key components of digital competence in 5 areas: Information and data literacy, Communication and collaboration, Digital content creation, Safety, Problem solving.

The concept of digital competence has emerged concurrently with technological development and as society has recognised the need for new competences. Development of technologies enables and constantly creates new activities and goals, and the importance of digital competence is therefore constantly changing and must always be seen in relation to the current technology and its application (Skov, A., 2016).

Digital competence is the most recent concept describing technology-related skills. During the recent years, several terms have been used to describe the skills and competence of using digital technologies, such as ICT skills, technology skills, information technology skills, 21st century skills, information literacy, digital literacy, and digital skills (Ilomäki, L., Kantosalo, A., Lakkala, M., 2011).

Learn more:

See also:

Problem solving

Problem solving is ability “to identify needs and problems, and to resolve conceptual problems and problem situations in digital environments; to use digital tools to innovate processes and products; to keep up-to-date with the digital evolution” (The Digital Competence Framework).

Definition of “collaborative problem solving” suggested by PISA “is the capacity of an individual to effectively engage in a process whereby two or more agents attempt to solve a problem by sharing the understanding and effort required to come to a solution and pooling their knowledge, skills and efforts to reach that solution” (OECD, 2017).

Problem solving is a term which have a wide scientific application in philosophy, medicine, education mathematics, engineering, business, computer science, and artificial intelligence.

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Digital Humanities

According to Oxford Lexico Digital humanities (DH) is: ‘an academic field concerned with the application of computational tools and methods to traditional humanities disciplines such as literature, history, and philosophy’.

David M. Berry, Professor of Digital Humanities from University of Sussex (UK), claims that ‘digital humanities are at the leading edge of applying computer-based technology in the humanities. Initially called ‘humanities computing’, the field has grown tremendously over the past 40 or so years. It originally focused on developing digital tools and the creation of archives and databases for texts, artworks, and other materials’ (Berry, 2019).

Learn more:

  • Berry, D. M. (2019). What are the Digital Humanities? The British Academy. Retrieved July 7, 2022, from https://www.thebritishacademy.ac.uk/blog/what-are-digital-humanities/
  • Berry, D. M., Fagerjord, A. (2017). Digital Humanities Knowledge and critique in a Digital age. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN: 978-0-745-69765-9
  • Crymble, A. (2021). Technology and the historian: Transformations in the Digital age. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. https://doi.org/10.5406/j.ctv1k03s73
  • Schreibman, S. (2011). A companion to Digital Humanities. Malden: Blackwell
  • Wimmer, M. (2019). Josephine Miles (1911–1985): Doing Digital humanism with and without machines. History of Humanities, 4 (2), 329–334. https://doi.org/10.1086/704850

See also:

Serious games

Serious games also known as applied games are interactive group of games that allow players to carry out activities that enable them to practice and achieve skills (Walz, Deterning, 2015). A key characteristic of serious games is that they augment the moment of pleasure with knowledge and skills useful to certain individuals and groups. In this sense, although they provide pleasure, they are not part of the entertainment industry, but rather of the educational process. In this context, in recent years gamification of learning processes has been actively discussed in scientific circles.

Learn more:

  • Encheva, M., Tammaro, A. M., & Brenner, M. (2019). Game-Based Learning: a Cognitive Pedagogical Approach for Improving Students’ Information Literacy. Libraries: dialogue for change: IFLA WLIC 2019. Athens, Greece. Retrieved from http://library.ifla.org/id/eprint/2509/1/207-encheva-en.pdf
  • Lugmayr, A., Sutinen, E., Suhonen, J., Sedano, C. I., Hlavacs, H., & Montero, C. S. (2016). Serious storytelling – a first definition and review. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 76 (14), 15707–15733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-3865-5
  • Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., & Jain, L. C. (2011). Serious Games and Edutainment Applications (2011th ed.). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9
  • Moro, C., Phelps, C., & Stromberga, Z. (2020). Utilizing serious games for physiology and anatomy learning and revision. Advances in Physiology Education, 44 (3), 505–507. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00074.2020
  • Walz, S. P. & Deterding, S. (Eds.) (2015). The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 688 p.
  • Zheng, R. (2016b). Handbook of Research on Serious Games for Educational Applications (Advances in Game-based Learning). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0513-6
  • Zyda, M. (2005). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer, 38 (9), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1109/mc.2005.297

See also:

Information literacy

Information literacy is a personal ability to identify, access, evaluate, organize, and use information in order to complete a task or solve a problem. According to The Association of College & Research Libraries information literacy is as a “set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning”.

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UNESCO defines “literacy” as ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves also a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society (Montoya 2018).

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See also: Oxford Reference

Virtual Reality

The term “virtual reality” (VR) is used to indicate use of computer technology to create the effect of an interactive three-dimensional world (Virtual reality: Definition and Requirements n.d.). In other words, it’s a computer technology to create a simulated environment, which can be explored in 360 degrees (Virtual reality in the classroom 2021). It also means an artificial environment, which is experienced through sensory stimuli (such as sights and sounds), provided by a computer and in which one’s actions partially determine what happens in the environment (Virtual reality n.d.).

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See also: Oxford Reference

Industry 4.0

World Economic Forum defines the Fourth Industrial Revolution as a fundamental change in the way we live, work and relate to one another. It is a new chapter in human development, enabled by extraordinary technology advances commensurate with those of the first, second and third industrial revolutions. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is about more than just technology-driven change; it is an opportunity to help everyone, including leaders, policy-makers and people from all income groups and nations, to harness converging technologies in order to create an inclusive, human-centred future. (Fourth industrial revolution 2022). Industry 4.0 is synonymous with smart manufacturing and is the realization of the digital transformation of the field, delivering real-time decision making, enhanced productivity, flexibility and agility (What is Industry 4.0 and how does it work? 2022).

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See also: Oxford Reference

Soft skills

The term „soft skills“ is used to indicate a set of intangible personal qualities, traits, attributes, habits and attitudes that can be used in many different types of jobs. As they are broadly applicable they are also seen as transferable skills. Examples of soft skills include: empathy, leadership, sense of responsibility, integrity, self-esteem, self-management, motivation, flexibility, sociability, time management and decision-making (IBE-UNESCO 2016).

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Immersive Technology

The Immersive Technology creates distinct experiences by merging the physical world with a digital or simulated reality (An introduction to immersive technologies 2020). Since immersive technology leverages the 360 space/sphere, users can look in any direction and see content. Some types of immersive technology extend reality by overlaying digital images on a user’s environment. Others create a new reality by completely shutting a user out from the rest of the world and immersing them in a digital environment (Barton, L. n.d.).

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See also: Google Scholar

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality is an enhanced version of reality created by the use of technology to overlay digital information on an image of something being viewed through a device such as a smartphone camera (Augmented reality n.d.) or it is a system that enhances the real world by superimposing computer-generated information on top of it (Augmented Reality 2006).Augmented reality also means an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and olfactory (Schueffel, P. 2017; Williams, D. 2017).

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See also: Oxford Reference